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Chapter 04 Solution
  Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth EditionPage 1 of 33 Systems Analysis and Design Ninth Edition End of Chapter Solutions CHAPTER FOUR R EQUIREMENTS  M ODELING ANSWERS TO CASE-SIM: SCR ASSOCIATES 1. Group managers said it was OK for their people to attend a three-day JAD session next week. Send a message to the JAD team members, with a brief explanation of JAD methods and a proposed agenda.  Answers for the message task will vary, but students should have an understanding of JAD  from this chapter and be able to write a memo that might look something like the following: To JAD team members: Most people on the team know each other, but some of us are new to SCR. Here’s a list of JAD team members and titles:Jill Martin, training group managerSandy Wise, records assistantAmy Hawkins, client service representativeMark Martin, Web designerDave Spencer, programmerMeg Harris, corporate trainer  Answers for the agenda task will vary. The following example is adapted from Figure 4-4 on page 145. Agenda: Discussion LeaderTopic Project leader (student name) ã Introduce all JAD team members ã Discuss ground rules, goals, and objectives for the JAD sessions  Page 2 of 33Chapter 12, Systems support and security ã Explain methods of documentation and possible use of CASE toolMember of SCR executive committee ã Explain the reasons for the project ã Express top management authorization and supportProject leader (student name) ã Provide overview of the current system ã Describe proposed project scope and constraints 2. Design a questionnaire for former and potential students in SCR’s training classes. Also, reply to Jesse’s message about sampling. Give her a recommendation and reasons. Students should follow the text guidelines for questionnaires, using the questionnaire shown in Figure 4-22 on page 166 as an example. The questionnaires should contain one or more examples of open-ended, closed-ended, and range-of-response questions. Answers will vary.Students also are asked to reply to Jesse Baker’s e-mail message about sampling. Most students will suggest a stratified sample of former students and prospective students. It is relatively easy to identify former students from SCR training records, but what about  prospective students? SCR might approach this in several ways. The company might solicit survey input on its Web site or from corporate clients with whom SCR has done IT projects in the past. Perhaps the company has a list of people who have requested information about SCR training in the past, but never took a course. Another level of stratified sampling might be taken among former students. Also, is there any connection between the training needs and the size of the firm? Should SCR attempt to obtain samples from small, medium, and larger firms? It is hard to know the answer from the limited factual background presented, but students should be encouraged to use their imagination in completing this task. 3. Read the JAD session summary in the Data Library and put together a list of system requirements, including outputs, inputs, processes, performance, and controls. The JAD summary portion contains quite a bit of information, but students will have to use their imagination. Based on the material provided, answers might include the following:Outputs   Course rosters    Rolling 90-day schedule of course offerings   Student background information summary   Course completion certificates    Instructor assignment list    Schedule report on completed courses and number of students   Student performance report for corporate clients Inputs   Student registration forms    Instructor-specific background data formsProcesses   TIMS must interface with the SCR accounting system  Systems Analysis and Design, Ninth EditionPage 3 of 33 Performance   TIMS must be able to track registration right up until the day the course is held    TIMS must be able to handle online registration in the futureControls   TIMS must be able to provide accounting data necessary to reconcile student accounts and bill corporate clients   TIMS must generate information to highlight more popular and less popular courses 4. Draw an FDD of the main functions for TIMS and send it to Jesse. When the JAD team members return from their sub-group meeting, Dave Spencer reported that TIMS would have four main functions, with other subordinate functions that would fall Initial FDD (Functional Decomposition Diagram) for the TIMS SystemManageCourse SchedulingRegisterStudentsMaintainTraining RecordsProduceReportsTIMSSystem under these groups. Based on that information, students should be able to draw an FDD similar to the following: ANSWERS TO CHAPTER EXERCISES  Review Questions 1.What are the five questions typically used in fact-finding? What additional question can be asked during this process?  During requirements modeling, the analyst performs fact-finding and asks the questions who, what, when, where, and how. As shown in the table on page 157, the additional question, which is very important to ask, is “why?” (Page 157) 2.What is a systems requirement, and how are systems requirements classified?  A system requirement is a feature that must be included in order for the system to be acceptable to users. The five categories into which system requirements are classified are outputs, inputs, processes, performance, and controls. (Page 153) 3.What are JAD and RAD, how do they differ from traditional fact-finding methods? What are their pros and cons??  JAD (joint application development) refers to a team of users, managers, and IT  professionals that work together to analyze the existing system, work on potential solutions, and develop the requirements for new systems. JAD can be more expensive than traditional  Page 4 of 33Chapter 12, Systems support and security methods, and if the team is too large for the project, then the JAD process can be cumbersome. The wide range of inputs and interaction among the participants in JAD can result in a more accurate assessment of system requirements, better understanding of goals, and stronger commitment to the success of the new system. Like JAD, RAD (Rapid application development) uses a group approach, but goes much  further. While JAD focuses on the requirements modeling process, RAD is a complete methodology, with a four-phase life cycle that parallels the traditional SDLC phases. The end product of RAD is the new information system. Companies use RAD to reduce cost and system development time, as well as increase the probability of success. RAD relies heavily on prototyping and user involvement. Users can examine a working model as early as possible, determine if it meets their needs, and suggest necessary changes by using the RAD process. Based on user input, the prototype is modified, and the interactive process continues until the system completely is developed and users are satisfied. The RAD model consists of four phases: requirements planning, user design, construction, and cutover.  (Page 144-146  ) 4.What is total cost of ownership (TCO), and why is it important?  In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the total cost of ownership (TCO). That especially is important where the development team is assessing several alternatives. After considering the indirect (and sometimes hidden) costs, a system that seems inexpensive initially might turn out to be the most costly choice. (Page 155 ) 5.Provide examples of closed-ended, open-ended, and range-of-response questions.  A question can be open-ended, closed-ended, or a range-of-response. Open-ended questions encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. Closed-ended questions limit or restrict the response to elicit specific information or verify facts. Range-of-response questions limit answers to a specific set of responses or a numeric scale. (Page 160) 6.What are three types of sampling, and why would you use them? The three types of sampling are systematic, stratified, and random sampling. A systematic sample, such as every tenth person, would be used to provide even coverage of an overall group. Stratified sampling can be used to obtain a representative sample from separate categories within the overall group. Random sampling will provide a list of any 50 customers.Consider the following example: A business might have three categories of customers. If it needs a sample from each customer category, it can use stratified sampling of ten customers from each category. For an evenly distributed sample from the total customer group, systematic sampling gives a representing sample. If no significant differences exist among the customer categories, random sampling might be acceptable  .   (Page 167-168) 7.What is the Hawthorne Effect? Why is it significant? The Hawthorne Effect refers to the idea that people perform differently when they realize they are being observed. When a systems analyst tries to observe procedures as they
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