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Brief for GSDR – 2016 Update Green infrastructure: planning for sustainable and resilient urban environment Shikha Ranjha, DLGS-IOER-TU Dresden, Germany* Introduction perspective, it may refer to the trees in the city which provide the necessary ‘green’ Cities are an important habitat for an array of benefits, while from an engineering physical, e
  * The views and opinions expressed are the author’s and do not represent those of the Secretariat of the United Nations. Online publication or dissemination does not imply endorsement by the United Nations. Brief for S! # $%&' Update Green infrastructure: planning for sustainable and resilient urban environment   Shi(ha an)ha !+S,-O ,TU !resden ermany* Introduction /ities are an important habitat for an array of physical economic social political and cultural capital. iven this importance it is si0nificant to thin( carefully about the nature operation and form of cities particularly in respect to the challen0in0 issue of sustainability. /ities however today stand in the face of 0rave dan0er in the form of uncurbed urbani1ation and climate chan0e. 2s a result of this phenomenon they are facin0 problems li(e biodiversity and natural habitat loss air pollution exceedin0 safe limits and urban floodin0. /limate chan0e is inextricably lin(ed to the process of urbani1ation where traditional problems li(e rapid population 0rowth increasin0 demand for housin0 space need for support infrastructure 3especially transport and sanitation4are exacerbated by the demand to accommodate the impacts of climate chan0e in the plannin0 process 3/lar( $%%54. espondin0 to these challen0es such as unprecedented urban 0rowth lies in innovative development of 0reen infrastructure which not only ensures resilience but also includes environmental and well,bein0 benefits. 6owever it is e7ually si0nificant to mana0e the development of 0reen infrastructure in order to deliver effective and efficient transition to sustainable urban form that further enhances urban resilience to multiple social economic and environmental stressors. ackground reen infrastructure 3-4 holds different interpretations for different people. -n an urban area from a social and recreational perspective it may refer to the trees in the city which provide the necessary 80reen’ benefits while from an en0ineerin0 perspective it may involve the inte0ration of several technical approaches 3li(e swales 0reen roofs 0ardens and par(s4 applied to facilitate various environmental benefits 3See table &4. 2ccordin0 to a report by 9orest esearch 3$%&%4 - can miti0ate ris(s from climate chan0e by protectin0 urban re0ions a0ainst floods and other ne0ative effects of chan0in0 weather patterns 3:rause et al.,  $%&&4. -n addition to the environmental benefits there are also potential well,bein0 benefits of - li(e increased life expectancy Table 1: Benefits of green infrastructure as mentioned in literature S.No. Benefits Literature Source &. ;ater mana0ement <acobson 3$%&&4 ill et al  . 3$%%=4 llis 3$%&$4 $. /arbon stora0e and removal >elasco and oth 3$%&%4 !avies et al  . 3$%&&4 Nowa( et al  . 3$%&?4 ?. educed ener0y use in buildin0s /ameron et al  . 3$%&$4 @in et al  . 3$%&$4 <affal et al  . 3$%&$4 A. 2ir 7uality improvement Brantley et al  . 3$%&?4 9reer,Smith et al  . 3$%%4 Setala et al  . 3$%&?4 . Social benefits Ceschardt et al  . 3$%&$4 9orsyth and Dusacchio 3$%%4 '. colo0ical benefits /ostan1a et al  . 3&55=4 ;eber et al  . 3$%%'4 =. 6uman health and well,bein0 benefits Nordh et al  . $%%5  $ better mental and psycholo0ical health 3Nordh et al  . $%%54. 9rom a plannin0 perspective the - approach ma(es use of the natural environment in a way that it maximises its functions and see(s to put in place either throu0h re0ulatory or plannin0 policy mechanisms that ensure protection of natural environment and proposes how these can be put in place throu0h landscaped andEor en0ineered activities 3Benedict and DcDahon $%%'4. 6owever the plannin0 approach differs from re0ion to re0ion. The concept of - in uropean countries refers to the new or existin0 interlin(ed networ(s or corridors of 0reen routes and hubs of biodiversity 3Durphy $%%54 which is reco0nised as a valuable approach for spatial plannin0 and is now seen in national re0ional and local plannin0 and policy documents and strate0ies 3+aforte11a et al.,  $%&?4. On the other hand USC2 3United States nvironmental Crotection 20ency4 lays emphasis on the protection of natural habitat in both urban and rural areas throu0h - 3$%%54. This concept follows the 0eneral approach by introducin0 facilities such as par(s 0ardens swales into the urban infrastructure and is mana0ed by USC2 and partner or0ani1ations in different municipality areas 3;einstein $%%F4. ;hile US and urope both lay emphasis on the role of public bodies in plannin0 approaches Sin0apore encoura0es other sta(eholdersGlandowners private developers to incorporate 0reen features into their developments and the community to embrace 0reen infrastructure for recreational H educational purposes in addition to its environmental value 3Cublic Utilities Board $%&?4. The Problem -n an urban context mountin0 levels of urbani1ation creates a networ( of barriers that result in a patchwor( of land uses and isolated open space areas. /onse7uently natural ecosystems become scattered across the landscape and displaced by new land,use developments 3eneletti $%%AI +aforte11a et al.,  $%%F4. -mprovin0 the functional and spatial connectivity of these landscapes is a prere7uisite to its ability to miti0ate and adapt to climate chan0e and in turn to increase the value of the 0oods and services that ecosystems provide 3rimm et al.,  $%%FI 6od0son et al.,  $%%54 thereby movin0 towards achievin0 urban sustainability. 2 solution to this challen0e lies in developin0 - approach that considers the landscape as an overall blan(et of inter,related ecosystems in which sin0le components interact with each other throu0h a multitude of elements 3;eber et al.,  $%%'4. 6owever - differs from other approaches in landscape plannin0 because it considers ecolo0ical and social values in combination with other land use developments 32e0isdJttir et al.,  $%%54. Clannin0 of 0reen infrastructure here refers to policies and plannin0 activity affectin0 urban - in particular throu0h processes of land use and mana0ement and development of nature areas and elements. 2s mentioned previously there is a variety of national and local plannin0 cultures and needs present due to which no sin0le definition of 0reen infrastructure plannin0 exists but instead a set of shared principles have been developed as 0uidance for different contexts 3Cauleit et al.  $%&&4 which ma(es it increasin0ly difficult for experts to come up with a consistent strate0y towards mana0in0 urban -. The Solution -t is widely (nown that in order to deal with the impacts of climate chan0e urban systems of infrastructure need to be both sustainable that is be able to thrive without excessive reliance on external resources and resilient to  ? be able to prevent and recover from distress and cope from challen0in0 issues. /ities are often considered to be centres of (nowled0e and innovation and the challen0e in buildin0 resilient cities lies in how they are mana0ed and developed. -t is where the role of different actors comes in view as these actors act as leaders to deal with multiple issues related to climate chan0e environmental de0radation and social,economic turmoil and can be considered as potential drivers for urban resilience. +iterature often cites that urban sustainability can be achieved by mana0in0 chan0e or transition that directs development in cities 3see +oorbach $%%=4 where sustainable development wor(s as a strate0ic tool that brin0s to0ether a series of interests and sta(eholders in the plannin0 and development process which is no different for -. Similarly the effective development of - approaches ta(es place throu0h a co,ordinated action between decision,ma(ers and other relevant sta(eholders ensurin0 the proper translation of policy 3usually formulated at national level4 into practice 3implemented at re0ional or local level4 3Dell $%&?4. This can be achieved throu0h a shift in the political landscape from a centrali1ed institution to a more liberal mar(et,based structure and incorporation of the concept of Kmulti, actor 0overnanceL which push towards new forms of bottom,up rulin0 styles and a brea( from dominant approaches 3+oorbach $%&%4. 6owever in the context of - the unclear role of all these actors and the collaboration between them 3especially any (ind of public private partnership for 0reen infrastructure development4 has not been effectively examined throu0h academic research and re7uires further study especially in case specific approaches since there is a lac( of standard 0uidance for doin0 so. Therefore academics must focus on studies that will address this issue by loo(in0 at the plannin0 of - approaches especially with respect to the role of state and non,state actors in facilitatin0 the effective development and implementation of such an approach & . References 2e0isdJttir 66 :uss C StMc(lin < 3$%%54. -solated populations of a rare alpine plant show hi0h 0enetic diversity and considerable population differentiation.  Annals of Botany   &%A &?&?,&?$$ Benedict D. H DcDahon . 3$%%'4. Green infrastructure: Linking landscapes and communities . ;ashin0ton !/ -sland Cress Brantley 6. 6a0ler . !eshmu(h C. Baldauf . 3$%&?4. 9ield assessment of the effects of roadside ve0etation on near,road blac( carbon and particulate matter. Science  of the Total Enironment  . A'F,A'5 &$%,&$5 /ameron . Blanusa T. Taylor <. Salisbury 2. 6alstead 2. 6enricot B. Thompson :. 3$%&$4. The domestic 0arden e its contribution to urban 0reen infrastructure. !rban  9orestry  and    !rban  reenin0. && 3$4 &$5,&?= /lar( 2. +. 3$%%54. nvironmental challen0es to urban plannin0 9rin0e areas ecolo0ical footprints and climate chan0e. -n roceedings of t#e $ey %#allenges in t#e rocess of !rbani&ation in 'o %#i (in# %ity: Goernance, Socio)economic and Enironmental *ssues.  6o /hi Dinh /ity -nstitute for !evelopment Studies /ostan1a  d’ar0e  de root  9arber S rasso D 6annon B +imbur0 : Naeem S O’neill > Caruelo < as(in  Sutton C van den Belt D. 3&55=4. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. The &  The author is currently researchin0 the issue by underta(in0 the case study of !elhi 3-ndia4 as a part of her Ch.!. pro)ect. Brief summary can be found here httpEEwww.dl0s,dresden.deEstipendiaten,und,stipendiatinnenEshi(ha,ran)haE  A value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature ?F= 3''?%4 $?,$'% !avies . dmondson <. 6einemeyer 2. +ea(e <. aston :. 3$%&&4. Dappin0 an urban ecosystem service 7uantifyin0 above,0round carbon stora0e at a citywide scale. <ournal of  Applied Ecology  . AF 34 &&$,&&?A llis <. 3$%&$4. Sustainable surface water mana0ement and 0reen infrastructure in U: urban catchment plannin0.  +ournal   of Enironmental lanning  and (anagement  . ' 3&4 $A,A& 9orest esearch 3$%&%4. Benefits of green infrastructure . eport by 9orest esearch /ontract no. ;/%F%= 9arnham U: 9orsyth 2. H Dusacchio +. . 3$%%4. !esi0nin0 Small Car(s 2 Danual for 2ddressin0 Social and colo0ical /oncerns. <ohn ;iley H Sons /anada 9reer,Smith C. Bec(ett :. Taylor . 3$%%4. !eposition velocities to Sorbus 2ria 2cer /ampestre Copulus !eltoides P Trichocarpa 8Beaupre’ Cinus Ni0ra and P /upressocyparis +eylandii for coarse fine and ultra,fine particles in the urban environment . Enironmental ollution . &?? &=,&'= eneletti ! 3$%%A4. Usin0 spatial indicators and value functions to assess ecosystem fra0mentation caused by linear infrastructures. -nternational <ournal of 2pplied arth Observation and eoinformation  &,& ill S. 6andley <. nnos 2. Cauleit S. 3$%%=4. 2daptin0 cities for climate chan0e the role of the 0reen infrastructure. Built Enironment  . ?? 3&4 &&,&?? rimm NB 9oster ! roffman C rove <D 6op(inson /S Nadelhoffer :< Cata(i ! Ceters !C 3$%%F4. The chan0in0 landscape ecosystem responses to urbani1ation and pollution across climatic and societal 0radients. rontiers in Ecology and t#e Enironment   ' $'A,$=$ 6od0son <2 Thomas /! ;intle B2 Doilanen 2 3$%%54. /limate chan0e connectivity and conservation decision ma(in0 bac( to basics.  +ournal of Applied Ecology   A' 5'A,5'5 <acobson /. . 3$%&&4. -dentification and 7uantification of the hydrolo0ical impacts of imperviousness in urban catchments a review.  +ournal of Enironmental (anagement  . 5$ 3'4 &A?F,&AAF <affal - Ouldbou(hitine S Belarbi . 3$%&$4. 2 comprehensive study of the impact of 0reen roofs on buildin0 ener0y performance. -eneable Energy   A?&=#'A :rause B /ulmsee 6 ;esche : Ber0meier  +euschner / 3$%&&4. 6abitat loss of floodplain meadows in north ermany since the &5%s. Biodiersity and %onseration  $% $?A=,$?'A +aforte11a  /orry / Sanesi  Brown ! 3$%%F4. >isual preference and ecolo0ical assessments for desi0ned alternative brownfield rehabilitations.  +ournal of Enironmental (anagement   F5 $=,$'5 +aforte11a . !avies /. Sanesi . :oni)nendi)( /./. 3$%&?4. reen -nfrastructure as a tool to support spatial plannin0 in uropean urban re0ions. iorest ' &%$#&%F. +oorbach !. 3$%%=4. Transition management, ne mode of goernance for sustainable deelopment  . Utrecht the Netherlands -nternational Boo(s +oorbach !. 3$%&%4. Transition mana0ement for sustainable development a prescriptive complexity,based framewor(. Goernance: An *nternational +ournal of olicy, Administration, and *nstitutions $?3&4 &'&#&F? Dell -./. 3$%&?4. /an you tell a 0reen field from a cold steel railQ xaminin0 the 80reen’ of reen -nfrastructure !evelopment. Local
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