Acute effects of orexigenic antipsychotic drugs on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rat


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Objective This study aims to investigate whether orexigenic antipsychotic drugs may induce dyslipidemia and glucose disturbances in female rats through direct perturbation of metabolically active peripheral tissues, independent of prior weight gain.
  26Committee of Donor Agencies for Small Enterprise Development International Conference on Effective Business Development Services  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March 2 – 3, 1999 Nurturing Entrepreneurs, Creating Enterprises:Technology Business Incubation in Brazil Rustam Lalkaka` and Daniel Shaffer   Abstract Business incubators have evolved from other business development services and grownrapidly in number - from 200 a decade ago to about 2,500 today. Much of the recentgrowth has been in the industrializing countries, such as China and Brazil whereincubators are generally focused on technology-based ventures and linked to technicaluniversities or technology parks. This paper presents a performance assessment of twoincubators in Brazil - the Biotechnology Incubator (Biominas) in Belo Horizonte, MG and theCentro Incubatador de Empresas Tecnologicas (ParqTec) in Sao Carlos, SP.We compare their implementation processes, institutional structures and the services theyprovide to their members and affiliates. The financial viability, cost-effectiveness andstakeholder satisfaction are analyzed. The success factors and likely future trends intechnology business incubation are identified. Biominas and ParqTec have demonstratedsuccess in launching new enterprises, developing good linkages with universities andresearch institutes, business and government agencies, assisting the state developmentinitiatives and contributing to their tax bases. It is now imperative for them to work towards greater financial self-sufficiency by raising their incomes through expandedoperations, including establishment of planned technology parks. Contents 1.   Introduction....... 21.   Incubators in the global context ... 41.   Framework for performance assessment... 111.   Institutional analysis of Biominas and ParqTec.. 131.   Services and client base.... 191.   Financial viability and outreach.... 241.   Cost effectiveness and stakeholder satisfaction.. 261.   Success factors and lessons learned.... 29References........ 35 Rustam Lalkaka   is senior adviser at the Private Sector Development Program of UNDP,New York, and president, Business & Technology Development Strategies LLC, 1441 Third  Avenue 5A, New York, NY 10028, email: Daniel Shaffer   is president, Shaffer & Associates and former Research Associate at Arizona State University, 8114 S. Jentilly Lane, Tempe, AZ 85284, email:  Paper Sponsor: Private Sector Development Programme, United NationsDevelopment Programme, One UN Plaza, NY 10017, Fax: 1(212) 906-6077   Technology Business Incubation in Brazil   1. INTRODUCTION The context In the new environment of rapid technological advances and globalizing trade,modern small businesses are playing a significant role in creating innovations,employment, income and growth with equity. For our purpose, these areventures with 5 to 50 employees and strong growth potential -- companieswhich may be large in future but happen today to be small. The small andmedium enterprise (SME) sector has proven to be a powerful engine foreconomic development, generating new jobs at a rapid pace even while theworld’s large corporations have down-sized and laid off millions of employees. If the global goal of creating one billion new jobs by Year-2005 is to be reached,SME growth will be the principal means. Inherently flexible and capable of innovative responses to emerging market opportunities, SMEs are alsobenefited by the global trend toward third-party out-sourcing in theproduction chain.The declining cost of communications today is breaking down the naturalbarriers of time and space that separate markets. The inflation-adjusted costof computing power has been falling by about one-third per year for the lasttwo decades. As countries move toward more open market systems, tradehas increased twice as fast as output, foreign investments three times as fast,and cross-border trade in equities ten times as fast ( The Economist  , October18, 1977). Further, growth in the international trade of services alreadyoutstrips that in merchandise. On-line economic commerce is projected tototal US$ 327 billion by Year-2002 ( Forrester Research Inc  ) and countrieswhich do not move quickly to build the infrastructure of telecommunications,computing and technical education could miss out on a major commercialrevolution. While these developments present good opportunities for small enterprises,they also pose many difficulties arising from their inherent weaknesses in accessing finance, skills, information and markets.  In the industrializingcountries, the obstacles to more rapid growth of technology-based SMEs alsoinclude: the stigma often attached to academics and researchers engaging incommercial activities, the bureaucratic and regulatory hurdles, and the recenteconomic down-turns.The continuing challenge for the SMEs together with the governments anddonors is to design and deliver cost-effective business development services(BDS), to better support the small enterprises. Business incubators   , evolving from experiences with other business services, have grown in numberfrom 200 a decade ago to about 2,500 world-wide today. Incubators nowprovide the platform for convergence of a variety of non-financial services –training, counseling, information and marketing -- as well as access to external   Technology Business Incubation in Brazil   networks. The target clients are early-stage entrepreneurial ventures withstrong growth potential. Objectives and method of study Due to the significance of technological innovation and entrepreneurship inshaping the future, this paper looks at technology incubation centers (whichhave common features with the ‘innovation centers’ in Europe) and their rolein commercializing technologies and developing high value-added products,processes and services.The paper presents a case study of two Brazilian technology businessincubation programs. The first of these is the Incubadora de Empresas deBase Tecnologica (Incubator of Basic Technology Enterprises) in BeloHorizonte, Minas Gerais, sponsored by the Biominas Foundation. The second issponsored by the ParqTec Foundation in Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo State andhouses two programs under one roof: CINET - Centro Incubador de EmpresasTecnologicas (Incubation Center for Technology Enterprises) and SOFNET, afacility with an in-house computer lab for enterprises in the computer softwarefield. Ventures incubated by Biominas and ParqTec are generally knowledge-based,requiring well-educated and trained staff, many of whom are faculty andstudents at local universities. They also require special attention in raisingventure (risk) capital, sourcing technology, protecting intellectual property,and entering niche markets nationally and internationally. The two programswere selected because they represent a range of experience, one being theoldest (ParqTec) and the other among the newest (Biominas) in Brazil. Theyare comparable in their public-private sponsorship and location in cities withsound technical infrastructure. In addition, the managements of both wereagreeable to participating in this study. The purposes of the study   are two-fold: First, to gain an understanding of thetechnology incubation system in Brazil through the experience of Biominas andParqTec; and second, to field test a rapid assessment approach to theevaluation of technology incubation programs, looking at their institutionalstructures, practices, effectiveness, sustainability and stakeholder satisfaction.While incubators are designed for specific situations, it is useful to identifygood practices and actions in the Brazilian experience in order to help enhanceperformance of technology incubators elsewhere. The work for this study   involved several elements:(1) a literature review of earlier incubator studies and evaluations, (2) a comprehensive survey questionnaire completed by the managements of both incubators, (3) participation in September 1998 at the annual meeting of ANPROTEC, theBrazilian association of business incubators and technology parks,   Technology Business Incubation in Brazil   (4) visits and on-site interviews in Belo Horizonte and Sao Carlos with sponsors,managers, tenants, and other stakeholders, and (5) follow-up by telephone, facsimile and Internet,The study was informed as well by the first-hand experiences of the authorsin developing BDS mechanisms and establishing incubators in 25 countries.In general, assessment studies are handicapped by a lack of accepteddefinitions of BDS success and sustainability as well as by poor availability of data. Few incubation programs have established systems for compilinginformation and assessing the on-going performance of their tenants andthose graduating (or dropping out) from the program. 2. BUSINESS INCUBATORS IN THE GLOBAL CONTEXT Business incubators are the Noah’s ark to sustain fledgling businesses throughstormy weather while technology parks, industrial estates, export processingzones and business clusters are larger, spatial arrangements. Incubators in theindustrial countries are 7 to 8 years old on average and are reaching maturity.In contrast, those in industrializing countries are of even more recent srcin.Their numbers are growing rapidly in countries such as China, Brazil, Turkey,South Korea, Taiwan, and Indonesia as well as in the transition economies,particularly Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Uzbekistan, Russia, Ukraine andRomania. Business incubation concepts Generally, the primary objective of an incubator is to help promote venturecreation and economic development by providing affordable work-space,shared facilities, counseling, training, information and access to professionalnetworks, for selected entrepreneurial groups. Some incubators targetclusters of sectoral activities such as biotechnology or computer software, butmost have mixed tenants. This focused help to early-stage groups has beenshown to increase their chances of survival (three to four-fold in the U.S.compared to those starting outside the incubator, Davis, Haltiwanger and Schink, 1994)  , providing benefits to the enterprise, the community and thestate. A 1998 survey of incubation by NBIA indicates that current tenants andgraduate enterprises at north American incubators have added some 19,000viable companies and 245,000 jobs. The average incubator occupies 36,000sq ft, with 24 tenant companies, and has graduated 20 enterprises in aboutsix years. Average residence time in the facility is 2.3 years. The majority of USincubators are sponsored by state and city Governments while around 15percent are private, for-profit units. Many now take equity in tenantcompanies and also serve affiliated companies outside the incubator. Aroundone-fourth have a specific technology orientation.   Technology Business Incubation in Brazil    A recent assessment at 50 incubation systems ( Business Incubation Works,1997. NBIA  ) showed that about 80 percent of the programs received somesort of operating subsidy. On an average annual operating budget of $278,240, the subsidy was $ 86,254. Capital investment subsidy was estimatedat $ 25,000 per year taking depreciation over a 20-year basis. Theemployment created over a seven-year period was 702 jobs, including indirectemployment of one-half job for each direct job in the incubator. This resultedin a public subsidy cost of $ 1,109 per job. The tax revenues generated was $4.96 per dollar of public subsidy.The Lexington Business Center is an example of a U.S. private, for-profitincubator. Through positive state and city involvement, ‘no-frills’ facilities, andprudent management, this has shown 30 to 40 percent annual returns oninvestment ( Tiedemann and Lalkaka, 1998  )The UNDP-UNIDO-OAS-sponsored assessment of incubators in sevenindustrializing countries indicated that around 26,000 jobs had been createdby the 78 incubators studied ( Lalkaka and Bishop 1996  ). Developments insome industrializing countries are summarized in Box-1 on the next page.Table-1 indicates the operating characteristics of typical incubators inindustrializing countries in comparison with those in the U.S. Incubators in Brazil Starting in the mid-1980s, the National Scientific and TechnologicalDevelopment Council (CNPq) initiated the Technological Innovation Programwhich launched the first six technology parks and incubators. Growthaccelerated in 1993 and Brazil now has 74 business incubators, mostly inthe South and Southeast. The primary objectives of Brazil’s incubators areeconomic development, technology commercialization and employmentgeneration. As of August, 1998, these incubators housed 614 small enterprises, employing2,700 persons, and had graduated 226 companies. The tenant businesses arein the fields of computer software development (33%), specialized servicesand consulting (17%), electronics and telecommunications (14%), %),biotechnology,pharmaceuticals and fine chemistry (9%), precision mechanics and automation(8%), clothing and leather products (7%), food products (5%) and otherproduct or service markets (15%), ( Guedes and Filartigas, 1998)  .
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