Atari System Reference Manual

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Atari System Reference Manual Atari System Reference manual Written by Bob DuHamel (c)1987 Hypertext version constructed by Ivo van Poorten (c)1994 Bob Duhamel 6915 Casselberry Way San Diego, CA 92119 Atari is a registered trademark of Atari Corp. This manual contains highly technical information. Such information is provided for those who know how to use it. To understand the advanced information you are expected to know 6502 assembly language. If you are new to programming, concentrate on
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  AtariSystemReferenceManual  1 Atari System Reference manual Written by Bob DuHamel (c)1987Hypertext version constructed by Ivo van Poorten(c)1994 Bob Duhamel 6915 Casselberry Way San Diego, CA 92119  Atari is a registered trademark of Atari Corp. This manual contains highly technical information. Such information is provided for thosewho know how to use it. To understand the advanced information you are expected to know6502 assembly language. If you are new to programming, concentrate on the parts whichdiscuss BASIC commands.Addresses are usually given in both hexadecimal and decimal numbers. The operatingsystem equate names are given in capital letters with the address following in brackets. Thedecimal address is in parenthsis within the brackets. For example: DOSVEC [$000A,2 (10)] name hex dec The ,2 after the hexadecimal number means that this address requires two bytes to hold its’information. Any address called a vector uses two bytes whether noted or not.Control registers and some other bytes of memory are shown in the following format Register format 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−| |−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−1 6 3 1 8 4 2 12 4 2 6  2 8 The numbers on top are the bit numbers. Bit 7 is the Most Significant Bit (MSB) and bit 0 isthe Least Significant bit (LSB). The numbers on the bottom are the bit weights. These areuseful when changing memory with decimal numbers, as you would in BASIC. For example,to set bit 4 of a register to 1, without changing any other bits you would add 16 to the decimalnumber already in the register. To reset the same bit to 0, you would subtract 16 from thenumber in the register. This is exactly what the command GRAPHICS 8+16 does. It sets bits3 and 4 of a graphics mode control register.MSB and LSB may also mean Most Significant Byte or Least Significant Byte, depending oncontext. Table of contents 1. The Central Input/Output Utility (CIO)2. The Disk Operating System (DOS)3. Using the DOS 2 Utilities (DUP.SYS)4. The Cassette Handler (C:)5. The Keyboard Handler (K:)6. The Printer Handler (P:)7. The Screen Editor (E:)8. The Display Handler (S:)9. The Resident Disk Handler10. System Interrupts11. The Floating Point Arithmetic Package12. Boot Software Formats13. The Serial Input/Output Interface (SIO)14. The Hardware Chips15. Display Lists16. Player and Missile Graphics17. Sound18. The Joystick Ports19. Misc...20. The XL and XE ModelsA. Hardware RegistersB. Operating System EquatesC. Memory UseIvo van Poorten (ipoorten@cs.vu.nl) CHAPTER 1
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