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   Author Dubey, R. B.     Title Correlation and path analysis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum).   Source Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences; 2010. 32(3):212-216. 12 ref. Publisher Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Location of Publisher Lucknow Country of Publication India Opium   poppy  ( Papaver    somniferum   L.) is an important medicinal plant which is a major source of alkaloids like morphine, codeine, thebanine, papaverine and narcotine. One hundred and fifty two diverse genotypes of the plant were analysed for variability  parameters, correlation and path   analysis for latex yield, seed yield and their contributing traits. The present study is an attempt to determine the genetic variability , correlation coefficient path   analysis  with respect to latex yield, seed yield and their components in opium   poppy . Author Jain, S. K.; Dodiya, N. S.; Joshi, A.    Title Genetic variability and character association in opium poppy ( Papaver  somniferu    Source Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences; 2006. 28(2):190-193. 13 ref. Publisher Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Location of Publisher Lucknow Country of India  Publication Genetic variability , correlation and path   analysis  was conducted in sixty three genotypes (Parents, crosses and checks) of opium   poppy  for plant height, stem diameter, peduncle length, stigmatic rays, grain yield per plant, husk yield per plant, latex yield per plant and morphine content. Significant variations among all the genotypes were recorded for all the characters. The estimate of PCV was higher than the GCV. The high GCV were observed for grain yield per plant, husk yield per plant and latex yield per plant. High genetic advance coupled with high heritability was observed for plant height, grain yield per plant and husk yield per plant. Latex yield per plant was significantly positive correlated with grain yield per plant and husk yield per plant. 3. Author Dittbrenner, A.; Mock, H. P.; Borner, A.; Lohwasser, U.  Title Variability of alkaloid content in Papaver  somniferum  L. Source Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality; 2009. 82(2):103-107. 19 ref. Publisher Druckerei und Verlag Liddy Halm Location of Publisher Gottingen Country of Publication Germany A total of 300 accessions of opium   poppy  ( Papaver    somniferum  L., Papaveraceae) of the IPK genebank collection from nearly all over the world were cultivated under field conditions in Gatersleben for morphological and phytochemical characterisation. Altogether 35 morphological and agronomic characters were collected for all accessions. Determination of chromosome numbers with flow cytometry showed that the accessions of subspecies setigerum  are tetraploid whereas all accessions of the other subspecies are diploid. Composition and content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine and noscapine) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total alkaloid content varied between 683.32 and 25,034.84 micro g/g dry matter (first year) and 1,799.49 and 25,338.55 micro g/g dry matter in the second year of cultivation. There is a highly significant correlation between total content of alkaloids and morphine in both years (r=0.926/P=0.000; r=0.918/P=0.000). In contrast, the other four main alkaloids show less or no correlation with each other or the total alkaloid content. This analysis  demonstrated that the amount and composition of the main alkaloids are highly variable. Additionally, there is no important correlation between morphological characters and alkaloid content. So it is not possible to use these characters as a prediction tool of alkaloid content during breeding process. 4. Author Dvorakova, E.; Novak, J.; Hakl, J.; Stranska, I.  Title An evaluation of the genetic resources of Papaver  somniferum  L. - phenotype variability in relatisoil. Source Cereal Research Communications; 2008. 36(Suppl. 5):783-786. 7 ref. Publisher Akademiai Kiado Location of Publisher Budapest  Country of Publication Hungary The morphological variability  of the genetic resources of poppy  ( Papaver    somniferum  L.) and the influence of distinct soil conditions related to the selected traits were evaluated. An intraspecific classification of Papaver    somniferum  L. cultivars; 4 basic clusters (groups) with white-seeded cultivars (cluster 1) and darkseeded (clusters 2-4) were established. Cluster analysis  and the k-means method was applied. An evaluation was made of the similarities and differences between the cultivar clusters on the basis of the capsule's size and shape, seed coloration intensity in relation to soil conditions. A significant influence of habitat, particularly soil conditions of the experimental localities on the classification of the given clusters of poppy  cultivars when applying the hierarchical clustering was not found. Examples of usage are the selection of parent material for breeding and the selection of appropriate varieties for given cultivation conditions. 5.   Author Dubey, M. K.; Dhawan, O. P.; Khanuja, S. P. S.    Title Downy mildew resistance in opium poppy: resistance sources, inheritance pattern, genetic variabi strategies for crop improvement. Source Euphytica; 2009. 165(1):177-188. 49 ref. Publisher Springer Science + Business Media Location of Publisher Dordrecht Country of Publication Netherlands Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens  is the most destructive disease of opium   poppy which assumes considerable importance in India and other poppy  growing countries. The present study was aimed at identification and evaluation of stable resistance sources of DM in opium   poppy . Furthermore, genetic variability  and inheritance pattern of DM resistance has also been studied which can help in making strategy for crop improvement. Evaluation of 35 selected germplasm accessions of  opium   poppy  under glasshouse and field conditions during the three consecutive years (2004-2005 to 2006-2007) resulted in identification of two genotypes (I-14 and Pps-1) as highly resistant and stable sources for DM resistance. Genetic studies of DM resistance revealed polygenic control with the dominance of susceptibility over resistance. Significant reciprocal differences were found largely due to maternal transmission of DM resistance indicating the involvement of cytoplasmic genes in addition to nuclear control. Analysis  of genetic variability  and selection parameters indicated predominance of additive effects for DM resistance and other yield contributing traits. Multivariate analysis  resulted in classification of 35 selected accessions into 11 different clusters revealing very high level of diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis  suggested that hybridization program involving genotypes from cluster V (which included highly resistant genotypes Pps-1 and I-14) and cluster IX (which included highly susceptible Jawahar-16 having good economically important traits like seed yield) could be expected to give best recombinants for improvement in terms of DM resistance and high seed and straw yield in opiumpoppy . Analysis  of selection parameters like heritability and genetic advance also suggested that simple selection methods will be effective in stabilizing resistance traits following hybridization with high yielding genotypes. 6.   Author Yadav, H. K.; Shukla, S.; Singh, S. P.    Title Genetic variability and interrelationship among opium and its alkaloids in opium poppy ( Papaversomniferum  L.).  Source Euphytica; 2006. 150(1/2):207-214. 29 ref. Publisher Springer Science + Business Media Location of Publisher Dordrecht Country of Publication Netherlands The plant species Papaver    somniferum  L. ( opium   poppy ) is grown commercially in several countries under secure area to produce opium  and its major alkaloids i.e. morphine, codeine, thebaine, narcotine and papaverine for pharmaceutical industries. In recent years the global demand for these alkaloids and its derivatives are growing. Seeing the global demand there is urgent need to develop high opium  yielding varieties integrated with high specific alkaloids. However, a breeding programme focused on developing improved varieties requires knowledge about the genetic variability  for the concern traits. Therefore the present investigation was undertaken to examine phenotypic and genotypic variability , broad sense heritability, genetic advance under selection and interrelationship of traits. A total of 122 accessions were found to be highly variables for all the traits studied. Broad sense heritability ranged from 74.18% (for opium  yield/plant) to 99.00% (for papaverine content). Expected genetic advance was varied between 33.91% (for morphine content) and 257.46% (for papaverine content). Genetic correlation analysis  revealed that opium  yield is negatively correlated with morphine and papaverine content. Among alkaloids codeine, thebaine, narcotine and papaverine showed positive correlation among themselves. The correlations among alkaloids were justified based on the biosynthetic pathway of opium  alkaloids. 7.   Author Jain, D. K.; Jain, S. K.; Bordia, P. C.; Joshi, A.  Title Study of genetic variability and correlation in germplasm of opium poppy ( Papaver  somniferum  L.   Source Research on Crops; 2005. 6(1):112-115. 5 ref. Publisher Gaurav Society of Agricultural Research Information Centre Location of Publisher Hisar Country of Publication India A study was conducted to determine the genetic variability  and genotypic and phenotypic correlations in 93 genotypes along with three checks, Chetak Aphim, JA-16 and IC-42, of opium   poppy . Analysis  of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for six characters, i.e. days to flower initiation, days to 50% flowering, seed yield per plant, husk yield per plant, latex yield per plant and morphine percentage, indicating sufficient amount of variability  in the material under study. The high genetic gain along with high heritability and high genetic coefficient of variation were observed in latex yield per plant, seed yield per plant, husk yield per plant and morphine percentage. Latex yield was positively and significantly associated with stem diameter, days to flower initiation, days to 50% flowering and number of effective capsules per plant. Seed yield per plant was significantly and positively correlated with husk yield per plant. 8.   Author Yadav, H. K.; Sudhir Shukla; Anu Rastogi; Singh, S. P.    Title Assessment of diversity in new genetic stock of opium poppy ( Papaver  somniferum ). Source Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences; 2007. 77(8):537-539. 11 ref.  Publisher Indian Council of Agricultural Research Location of Publisher New Delhi Country of Publication India The genetic divergence among 74 genetically distinct new stocks (including new germplasm collections, improved varieties, landraces and advance breeding lines developed from intra- and interspecific hybridization) of opium   poppy  ( P. somniferum ) was studied using cluster and principal component analysis  for framing future breeding plans to develop high opium-yielding cultivar rich in specific alkaloid. Data were recorded on days to 50% flowering, plant height, peduncle length, leaves per plant, branches per plant, capsules per plant, stem diameter, capsule size, capsule weight per plant, seed yield per plant, husk weight per plant, opium  yield per plant, morphine, codeine, thebaine, narcotine and papaverine contents. A hierarchical cluster analysis  grouped these accessions into 8 clusters. The intra- and inter-cluster distances showed the maximum intra-cluster distance in cluster VI, followed by III, V and VIII, while the inter-cluster distance was maximum in clusters III and VIII. Principal component analysis  showed that the first principal components (PCS) accounted for 69% of variability  among the accessions. The accessions of clusters III, I, II and VI showed greater potential towards the development of high opium-yielding genotypes rich in specific alkaloids. 9.   Author Singh, S. P.; Shukla, S.; Yadav, H. K.; Chatterjee, A.    Title Genotype x environmental interaction in relation to stable genotypes in opium poppy ( Papaversomniferum  L.). Source Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding; 2005. 65(2):153-154. 4 ref. Publisher Indian Society of Genetics & Plant Breeding Location of Publisher New Delhi Country of Publication India A total of 22 pure selections of opium   poppy  obtained through different intraspecific hybridization followed by rigorous selections up to 8 years, including BROP-1 as the control were evaluated to determine the genotype x environment interactions and to identify stable genotypes as variety and also for further use in breeding programmes. Data were recorded for seed and opium  yield, and morphine percentage. There were significant differences among genotypes for all the characters. The joint regression analysis  also showed that the variances due to genotypes were significant for all the traits, suggesting the presence of genetic variability  for further genetic study. The variances due to the environment were significant for all characters indicating that the environment played a major role in causing variation. Significant mean squares due to genotype x environment interaction indicates that the genotypes interacted considerably with environmental conditions. The environment (linear) component was highly significant for all the traits while linear component of environmental interaction was significant only for opium  yield and morphine percentage. Significant pooled deviation (non-linear) suggests that the performance of different varieties fluctuated considerably in respect to their stability for respective characters. Both predictable (linear) and unpredictable (non-linear) components contribute significantly to differences in stability among genotypes. The genotypes BR-233, BR-241, BR-242 and BR-244 had significant regression coefficient for seed yield. The test of significance for genotype x environment interaction for opium  yield indicated the absence of genotype x environment interaction for BR-228, BR-234, BR-235, BR-245 and BR-246 where linear and nonlinear components were not significant. 9.   Author Shukla, S.; Yadav, H. K.; Singh, S. P. 
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