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Epistemología. Saber. Metodología.
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   INSTITUTO PENSAMIENTO Y CULTURA EN AMERICA A. C. “  ENSEÑAR A PENSAR ” ______________________________________________________________________________________ Galeana N 96 ,Colonia Guerrero, México, D. .F TEL 55 29 84 86, MAIL ipecal_mexico@yahoo.es ! #$%& ( )&*+, - ! #$%& !*$(./*+, 0 1 ,$ & (,$ 2 1%$ +* #+*%$ $,+*%1 $ 1%(*#,%/ &*+%#%$   #$% &'(')(*+ , --  .* /'*)01*1 2#' '+3/'+4*(%56 )* /'*)01*1 5%70% 80549/07*6 40'+' (:)40;)'5 50$+0307*1%5< =% '5 #+* /'*)01*1 7)*/*6 0+'2#>?%7*6 7%+ #+* 50$+0307*709+ 7/054*)0+* @ * )* 7#*) 5' )' ;#'1* *A%/1*/ 5'+70))*('+4' 7%+54/#@'+1% 4'%/>*5 % 7%+7';4%5< =% '5 *5> ;%/ 10?'/5*5 /*B%+'56 )*5 7#*)'5 3%/(*+ ;*/4' 1') 1'A*4' 2#' 8%@ 1>* 5' 1* '+ ') C(A04% *7*1D(07% 5%A/' ') ;/%A)'(* 2#' *3'74* * )*5 70'+70*5 5%70*)'56 @ 2#' @% /'5#(0/>* '+ #+ 7%+7';4%E ') ! #$%&#' 6 ') ! #($#  2#' 'F054' '+4/' (#78%5 )*+,*+$#  4'9/07%5 @ )* /'*)01*1< G54* 01'* 1') 1'53*5' '5 7)*?'6 @* 2#' *)#1' * )%5 7%+7';4%5 2#' * ?'7'5 #40)0B*(%5 7/'@'+1% 2#' 40'+'+ #+ 50$+0307*1% 7)*/%6 @ +% )% 40'+'+< G54% ;)*+4'* )* +'7'501*1 1' #+* 7%+54*+4' /'50$+0307*709+ 2#'6 *#+ 50'+1% #+ 4/*A*H% 7%(;)'H%6 '5 4*(A0D+ #+* 4*/'* 7'+4/*) 1' )*5 70'+70*5 5%70*)'56 5%A/' 4%1% 1' *2#'))*5 1' 5#5 10('+50%+'5 2#' 40'+'+ 2#' ?'/ 7%+ )* 7%+54/#7709+ 1') 7%+%70(0'+4%< I078% 1' %4/* (*+'/*6 '5 #+ 4'(* 7'+4/*) '+ ') ;/%7'5% 1' 0+?'540$*709+ @6 ;%/ )% 4*+4%6 '5 #+ 4'(* 7'+4/*) 1' )* ('4%1%)%$>*< .* +'7'501*1 1' /'50$+0307*/ 5#/$' ;/'705*('+4' ;%/ ') 1'5*H#54' '+4/' 4'%/>* @ /'*)01*1< J'/%6 K;%/ 2#D ') 1'5*H#54'L J%/ *)$% ')'('+4*)E ') /04(% 1' )* /'*)01*1 +% '5 ') /04(% 1' )* 7%+54/#7709+ 7%+7';4#*)< .%5 7%+7';4%5 5' 7%+54/#@'+ * #+ /04(% (C5 )'+4% 2#' )%5 7*(A0%5 2#' 5' 1*+ '+ )* /'*)01*1 'F4'/+* *) 5#H'4%6 ;%/ '5% 7%+54*+4'('+4' 5' '54C $'+'/*+1% #+ 1'5*H#54'< I078% *5> ;*/'7' 7%(% #+ ;/%A)'(* ('+%/ ;'/%6 '+ ?'/1*16 40'+' 7%+5'7#'+70*5 ;/%3#+1*5 ;%/2#' '+ )* ('101* '+ 2#' +% /'5%)?'(%5 '54' ;/%A)'(*6 ;%1'(%5 0+7#//0/ '+ 1057#/5%5 @ '+#+70*1%56 % (*+'H*/ 01'*56 2#'6 ;#10'+1% 4'+'/ #+* 50$+0307*709+ '+ 4D/(0+%5 1' * A0A)0%$/*3>* %6 ;*/* 1'70/)% 1' #+* (*+'/* (*5 *(;)0*6 '+ ') (*/7% 1') 7%+%70(0'+4% *7#(#)*1%6 +% 4'+$*+ +'7'5*/0*('+4' #+ 50$+0307*1% /'*) ;*/* ') (%('+4% '+ 2#' 7%+54/#0(%5 ') 7%+%70(0'+4%< **   D IRECTOR DEL I NSTITUTO P ENSAMIENTO Y C ULTURA EN A MÉRICA L ATINA ,   A.C.   (IPECAL),   M ÉXICO     INSTITUTO PENSAMIENTO Y CULTURA EN AMERICA A. C. “  ENSEÑAR A PENSAR ” ______________________________________________________________________________________ Galeana N 96 ,Colonia Guerrero, México, D. .F TEL 55 29 84 86, MAIL ipecal_mexico@yahoo.es G+ ') C(A04% 1' )*5 #+0?'/501*1'5 1' M(D/07* .*40+*6 )% 2#' 1'70(%5 '5 #+ 4'(* 2#' 1'A'/>* 5'/ *A%/1*1%6 ;'/% 2#' 1'5*3%/4#+*1*('+4' +% )% '5< N' 7%+54*4* 1' (*+'/* 7)*/* '+ )*5 ;%)>407*5 1' 3%/(*709+ 1' )%5 70'+4>307%5 5%70*)'5 '+ M(D/07* .*40+*E +% 8*@ ;/'%7#;*709+ ;%/ ') 49;07%6 % A0'+6 5' 7/'' 2#' '5 'F7)#50?% 1' )%5 30)95%3%5 1' )* 70'+70*6 1' )%5 )9$07%56 @ +% 1' 2#0'+ 2#0'/' 7%+54/#0/ #+ 7%+%70(0'+4% 50+ +'7'501*1 1' 0+7#/50%+*/ '+ )*5 ;/%A)'(C407*5 1' )* 30)%5%3>* 1' )* 70'+70* % 1' )* )9$07*< M) +% 4%(*/ '+ 7#'+4* '54* 10307#)4*1 '+ )* 3%/(*709+ 1' )%5 70'+4>307%5 5%70*)'56 7%//'(%5 ') /0'5$% 1' 2#' '))%5 '54D+ ;'+5*+1% 3074070*('+4'6 '5 1'70/6 2#' O *#+ 7#*+1% 'F054*+ 'F7';70%+'5P '54D+ ;'+5*+1% 5%A/' /'*)01*1'5 0+?'+4*1*5< Q*+ 50(;)' 7%(% '5%< G54% 40'+' '?01'+4'('+4' 7%+5'7#'+70*5 1' %/1'+ ;/C7407%6 ;%/2#' 50 +% 5#;0D/*(%5 7%+54/#0/ #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 5%A/' )* /'*)01*1 2#' 4'+'(%5 ;%/ 1')*+4'6 @ '5* /'*)01*1 )* 1'30+0(%5 '+ 3#+709+ 1' 'F0$'+70*5 7%+7';4#*)'5 2#' ;#'1'+ +% 4'+'/ ;'/40+'+70* ;*/* ') (%('+4% 80549/07%6 '+4%+7'5 50$+0307* 2#' '54*(%5 %/$*+0B*+1%6 +% 59)% ') ;'+5*(0'+4%6 50+% ') 7%+%70(0'+4% 1'+4/% 1' (*/7%5 2#' +% 5%+ )%5 ;/%;0%5 1' '5* /'*)01*1 2#' 5' 2#0'/' 7%+%7'/< G54* 504#*709+ 2#'6 4*) 7%(% )* '54*(%5 ;)*+4'*+1%6 ;*/'7' 7%(% ')'('+4*) @ %A?0*6 50+ '(A*/$% '5 ;*/4' 1' #+% 1' )%5 -.$ )+&).#  1' )*5 70'+70*5 5%70*)'5< M3%/4#+*1*('+4'6 1'51' 8*7' *)$#+%5 *R%5 * )* 3'78*6 8*@ $/#;%5 1' 0+4')'74#*)'5 )*40+%*('/07*+%5 2#' 8*+ 7%('+B*1% * /'*770%+*/ 3/'+4' * '54' 8'78% @ 2#' 8*+ ;#'54% 1' (*+030'54% 2#' (#78%5 1' )%5 7%+7';4%5 2#' #40)0B*(%5 ;*/* '+4'+1'/ ') G54*1%6 )* 5%70'1*16 )*5 1'50$#*)1*1'56 )* 1'(%7/*70*6 )* 7#)4#/*6 0+7)#5% ;*/* '+4'+1'/ )*5 10+C(07*5 5%70*)'56 )* ;/%;0* '1#7*709+6 +% /'5;%+1'+ * 7%+7';4%5 2#' '54D+ /'3)'H*+1% )* /'*)01*1 2#' ))*(*(%5 80549/07*6 50+% 2#' 5%+ 7%+7';4%5 *7#R*1%5 '+ %4/%5 7%+4'F4%5 @ 2#' (#78*5 ?'7'5 )* *7*1'(0* )%5 /';04' 50+ /'?05*/ 1'A01*('+4' 50 '54C+ 1*+1% 7#'+4* 1' /'*)01*1'5 7%+7/'4*5< M) +% 4'+'/ 7%+70'+70* 2#' 5' '54C 1*+1% #+ 1'5*H#54' '+4/' )* 4'%/>* @ )* /'*)01*1 2#' 5' ;/'4'+1' 1'+%4*/6 /'5#)4* 2#' '54*(%5 0+?'+4*+1% /'*)01*1'5< N04#*709+ 2#' ;%1'(%5 /'7%+%7'/ +% 5%)*('+4' '+ ') C(A04% 1' )* 0+?'540$*709+ % 1' )* 1%7'+70*6 1' )* *7*1'(0* '+ $'+'/*)6 50+% 2#' 4*(A0D+ '+ %4/% %/1'+ 1' 1057#/5%56 ;%/ 'H'(;)% ') 1057#/5% ;%)>407%< G+ %7*50%+'5 +%5   INSTITUTO PENSAMIENTO Y CULTURA EN AMERICA A. C. “  ENSEÑAR A PENSAR ” ______________________________________________________________________________________ Galeana N 96 ,Colonia Guerrero, México, D. .F TEL 55 29 84 86, MAIL ipecal_mexico@yahoo.es '+7%+4/*(%5 7%+ 2#' '54' 3/'7#'+4'('+4' '54* *(*//*1% * 7%+7';4%5 2#' +% 5%+ ;'/40+'+4'56 2#' +% '54C+ 1*+1% 7#'+4* 1' )* /'*)01*1< Q%1% )% 7#*) 5#;%+'6 '+4/' %4/*5 0(;)07*70%+'56 ;)*+4'*/5' )* 7#'5409+ @ 4/*4*/ 1' /'5%)?'/)*S /'5%)#709+ 2#' '+ +0+$:+ 7*5% ;%1/>*(%5 7%+501'/*/ 2#' '5 'F7)#50?*('+4' 4'9/07*6 '+ ') 5'+401% 1' 2#' A*54* 7%+54/#0/ #+ 7#'/;% 1' ;/%;%5070%+'5 7%+ #+* 3#+709+ 'F;)07*40?* 2#' /'5#')?* 1' #+* ?'B @ ;*/* 50'(;/' ') ;/%A)'(*< J/'705*('+4' '5 #+* 7#'5409+ 2#' +% 5' /'5#')?' 4'9/07*('+4'6 ;%/2#' 50 *5> 3#'/*6 5'/>* 4*+4% 7%(% 1'57%+%7'/ )* +*4#/*)'B* (05(* 1') ;/%A)'(*< N0 ;0'+5% 2#' #+ 1'5*H#54' 1' '54* +*4#/*)'B* 5' ;#'1' /'5%)?'/ * 4/*?D5 1' #+* 4'%/>*6 +% '54%@ 4%(*+1% 7%+70'+70* 2#' ') ;/%A)'(* '54C '+ )* 4'%/>* (05(* ;%/2#'6 ;%/ (C5 A/0))*+4' @ $'+0*) 2#' D54* 5'*6 ;%/ 1'30+0709+ 7%//' ') /0'5$% 1' 1'53*5*/5' 1' )* /'*)01*1< .* /'5%)#709+6 ;#'56 +% '5 4'9/07*6 '+ )* ('101* 2#' ') ;/%A)'(* '5 )* 4'%/>* (05(*S ;%/ '5% D54* /'2#0'/' 5'/ + #.01.(.)$!$ 6 /'?05*1* * )* )#B 1' )*5 'F0$'+70*5 1' )*5 /'*)01*1'5 80549/07*56 (#78*5 ?'7'5 '('/$'+4'56 +#'?*56 0+#504*1*56 0(;/'?054*5< M8%/* A0'+6 50 +% '5 #+ ;/%A)'(* 2#' 5' ?* * /'5%)?'/ 4'9/07*('+4'6 K79(% 5' /'5#')?'L G5 '+ '54' (*/7% 1%+1' 5#/$' )* 7#'5409+ 0(;%/4*+4' 1' '+4'+1'/6 @ 2#' 5' #A07* '+ ') ;)*+% 1' )% 2#' 1' (*+'/* *A54/*74* ;%1'(%5 1'30+0/ 7%(%  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 (*+2$ ,.#'32.)$ ! + #*4- + 4 ,+*54 2$ < N#/$' '+4%+7'5 #+* 1057#509+ 0+4'/'5*+4' 2#' 50(;)'('+4'   INSTITUTO PENSAMIENTO Y CULTURA EN AMERICA A. C. “  ENSEÑAR A PENSAR ” ______________________________________________________________________________________ Galeana N 96 ,Colonia Guerrero, México, D. .F TEL 55 29 84 86, MAIL ipecal_mexico@yahoo.es (' )0(04% * *;#+4*/E )* +'7'501*1 1' 10540+$#0/ '+4/' #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 4'9/07% @ #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% ';054D(07%6 7#@* 103'/'+70* '54C ;/'705*('+4' '+ ') 79(% 5' /'5#')?' )* /')*709+ 1') ;'+5*(0'+4% 7%+ '5* /'*)01*1 2#' 5' 2#0'/' +%(A/*/< ,' 'F;)07%E '+ ') ;'+5*(0'+4% 4'9/07% )* /')*709+ 2#' 5' '54*A)'7' 7%+ )* /'*)01*1 'F4'/+* P 7%+ )* 'F4'/+*)01*16 ;*/* 1'70/)% '+ 4D/(0+%5 (C5 7%//'74%56 * )* )#B 1' )*5 1057#50%+'5 *74#*)'5P '5 50'(;/' #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 2#' 40'+' 7%+4'+01%56 ;%/ )% 4*+4% ') 1057#/5% 1' '5' ;'+5*(0'+4% '5 50'(;/' #+ 1057#/5% ;/'107*40?%6 ?*)' 1'70/6 #+ 1057#/5% *4/0A#40?% 1' ;/%;0'1*1S @* 2#' +% '5 #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 2#' ;#'1' 1'H*/ 1' 8*7'/ *30/(*70%+'5 5%A/' )* /'*)01*1 ;#'5 #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 4'9/07% '5 #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 2#' 8*7' *30/(*70%+'5 5%A/' )% /'*)< T#050'/* ;%+'/ #+ 'H'(;)% ;*/* 7)*/0307*/ '54* 01'*E 50 )''(%5 #+ )0A/% 1' #+ *#4%/ UVW @ '+3/'+4*(%5 #+ ;/%A)'(* 2#' '5' *#4%/ 8* *+*)0B*1%6 )% (C5 0+'/70*) @ 3/'7#'+4' '5 /';'40/ )*5 *30/(*70%+'5 2#' ') *#4%/ 8* 1078% 5%A/' )* /'*)01*1 UMW6 *#+2#' '54'(%5 *+*)0B*+1% )* /'*)01*1 UXW< G5 1'70/6 /';'40(%5 ') (05(% 1057#/5% *#+2#' )' *$/'$#'(%5 #+ '+#+70*1% 7%+ #+* 5'/0' 1' ;/'107*1%56 % ;*/* 1'70/)% '+ 4D/(0+%5 (C5 ;/'705%56 )' *$/'$#'(%5 #+* 80;94'505< Y#*+1% 8*A)*(%5 1' 80;94'505 '54*(%5 8*A)*+1% 1' 7%+54/#7709+ 1' '+#+70*1%5 7%+ ;/'107*1%5 2#' 107'+ 7%5*56 2#' +% 5%+ ?*7>%5S #+* 80;94'505 ?*7>* '5 #+* 7%+4/*107709+6 5'/>* *A5#/1% 4'+'/ 80;94'505 50+ 7%+4'+01%< J%/ )% 4*+4% ') ;'+5*(0'+4% 4'9/07% '5 #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 2#' @* 40'+' #+ 7%+4'+01% %/$*+0B*1% @ 2#' ;#'1' 5'/ ') (05(% 7%+4'+01% 2#' 5' ?0'+' *//*54/*+1% Z% ;#'1' 5'/ #+ 7%+4'+01% 103'/'+4'6 ;'/% )% 3#+1*('+4*) '5 2#' 4'+$* #+ 7%+4'+01%[ @6 ;%/ )% 4*+4%6 5# '54/#74#/* '+ 4D/(0+%5 1' 7%+54/#0/ ;/%;%5070%+'5 '5 (#@ ;/'705*< G+ 7*(A0%6 7#*+1% 8*A)*(%5 1'  , 1#$2. 1'* ,.#'32.)*  +%5 /'3'/0(%5 * #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 2#' +% 40'+' 7%+4'+01% @ '5% '5 )% 2#' * ?'7'5 7#'54* '+4'+1'/< KY9(% ;#'1% @% 4'+'/ #+ ;'+5*(0'+4% 50+ 7%+4'+01%L N0 )% ;#50D/*(%5 '+ 4D/(0+%5 1' )* 1057#509+ 7)C507*6 ;%/ 'H'(;)%6 7%+ \*/) J%;;'/ '+ 5# 4'F4% #$%&'()*+ , -&.('*/0#$&+ 6 )* 7'+4/*)01*1 1') ;'+5*(0'+4% ';054D(07% '5 )* ;/'$#+4*6 +% '5 ') ;/'107*1%6 +% '5 )* *4/0A#709+ 1' ;/%;0'1*1'5< G54%6 1078% *5>6 *;*/'7' 7%(% 1' 5'+401% 7%(:+6 ;'/% ') ;/%A)'(* '54C '+ 1*/)' * )* ;/'$#+4* #+ #'$'&#  +% 50(;)'('+4' 1' ('/* 7%+H'4#/* 50+%6 (C5 A0'+6 1' *)$% (C5 *(;)0% 2#' '5%6 7%(% '5 ;'/(040/
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