MCP 101 Lab Manual 2016

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  1 | MCP101  MCP 101 Product Realization by Manufacturing Lab Manual Dr. Sunil Jha Department of Mechanical Engineering I NDIAN I NSTITUTE OF T ECHNOLOGY D ELHI   2015-16    2 | MCP101  Contributors Course Coordinator       Dr. Sunil Jha    Supporting Staff    Jitendra Kumar, JTS PhD. Students 1.   Dilshad Ahmad Khan 2.   Manoj Sinha 3.   Faiz Iqbal 4.   Girish Verma 5.   Aviral Mishra 6.   Zafar Alam  M.Tech Students 1.   Kangkan Kalita 2.   Abhishek Prabhakar 3.   Utpal Sharma 4.   Md. Abdul Haque 5.   Rahul Bhushan 6.   Ravish Kumar 7.   Anurag Singh  3 | MCP101  Chapter 1 MACHINE SHOP In a machine shop, metals are cut to shape on different machine tools. The work is performed due to relative motion between the job and tool. A machine tool generally consists of a number of parts as following. 1.   Base 2.   Power source with arrangement of gear box or other power transferring mechanism 3.   Work piece holding component like chuck, table, vice, etc. 4.   Tool holding device like tool post, arbor etc. Following are the machine tools which are used in machine shop for different types of operations and shapes. 1. Lathe machine:  A lathe is used to cut and shape the metal by revolving the work against a cutting tool. The work is clamped either in a chuck, fitted on to the lathe spindle or in ‐  between the centers. The cutting tool is fixed in a tool post, mounted on a movable carriage that is positioned on the lathe  bed. The cutting tool can be fed on to the work, either lengthwise or cross ‐ wise. While turning, the chuck rotates in counter  ‐ clockwise direction, when viewed from the tail stock end. 2.   Shaper machine:  Shapers are intended to produce horizontal, vertical or inclined flat surfaces by means of a reciprocating single point cutting tool. Tool is given reciprocating motion with the help of mechanism. In shaper the tool is held in the tool post of reciprocating ram and the work piece is held in a vice. Cutting takes place in the forward stroke and no material is removed in the return stroke. Work piece is given indexed feed perpendicular to the direction of ram at the end of return stroke. 3.   Planer machine: Planer is   used to produce large flat surfaces which are almost impracticable to  be machined on a shaper. In planer the work piece reciprocates past the stationary single point cutting tool as compared to shaper in which the cutting tool reciprocates past the stationary work. 4. Slotter machine: The vertical position of shaper machine is known as slotting machine which is used to produce splines, slots etc. The slotting machine is a reciprocating machine tool in which, the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis and the cutting action of the tool is only during the downward stroke.   4 | MCP101  5. Drilling machine: Drilling is an operation of producing circular holes in a work piece by using a rotating tool known as drill. In drilling operation hole is produced by feeding the rotating drill in a direction parallel to its axis into a work piece fixed to the table. During cutting the metal comes in contact with the two cutting edges of the tool and removes the metal stock. 6. Grinding machine: Grinding is the metal cutting process in which the material is removed from the work piece by the abrasive action of a rotating cutting tool known as grinding wheel. In grinding wheel abrasive grains are held together by a binding material called bond. Abrasive grains of the grinding wheel act as cutting tool and remove the material in the form of small chips. Grinding is used in finishing operations because it imparts high surface finish by removing a very small amount of material. 7. Surface grinding machine: Surface grinders are used to produce flat surfaces. According to the type of table these can be classified as planer type or rotary type. In planer type grinder is rectangular and may have horizontal or vertical spindles. 8. Power saw: Power saw is power operated saw which is used to shear the metal in large quantity in a short time .  They are used to cut large sizes (sections) of metals such as steel. Cutting diameters of more than 10 to 15mm is very hard work with a normal hand held hacksaw. Therefore power hacksaws have been developed to carry out the difficult and time consuming work. The heavy ‘arm’ moves backwards and forwards, cutting on the backwards stroke 10. Milling machine: The milling machine is used to produce, mainly on prismatic components, flat, curved, parallel, stepped, square and inclined faces as well as slots, grooves, threads and tooth systems. The milling cutter performs a rotary movement (primary motion) and the workpiece a linear movement (secondary motion).  Detail of Lathe Machine: Lathe is one of the most versatile and widely used machine tools all over the world. It is commonly known as the mother of all other machine tool. The main function of a lathe is to remove metal from a job to give it the required shape and size. The job is secure1y and rigid1y held in the chuck or in between centers on the lathe machine and then turn it against a single  point cutting tool which wi1l remove meta1 from the job in the form of chips. Fig. shows the working  principle of lathe. An engine lathe is the most basic and simplest form of the lathe. It derives its name from the early lathes, which obtained their power from engines. Besides the simple turning operation as described above, lathe can be used to carry out other operations also, such as drilling, reaming,  boring, taper turning, knurling, screw thread cutting, grinding etc.
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