Mobile Devices in Crossmodal Interfaces

Teoría del Derecho

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Abstract We describe a crossmodal ambient display framework with which we aim to bridge the gap between ambient display technology and personal mobile HCI through the exploitation of aspects of crossmodal cognition. We utilize this framework in the
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    University of Newcastle upon Tyne COMPUTINGSCIENCE Mobile Devices in Crossmodal InterfacesH. Cao, P. Olivier, D. Jackson, A. Armstrong.    TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES   No. CS-TR-1004 February, 2007   NEWCASTLEUNIVERSITY OF   TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES   No. CS-TR-1004 February, 2007  Mobile Devices in Crossmodal InterfacesHan Cao, Patrick Olivier, Daniel Jackson, Andrew Armstrong. Abstract We describe a crossmodal ambient display framework with which we aim to bridgethe gap between ambient display technology and personal mobile HCI through theexploitation of aspects of crossmodal cognition. We utilize this framework in theconstruction of CROSSFLOW, a crossmodal ambient display prototype for indoornavigation, and demonstrate a significant increase in the performance of usersnavigating with CROSSFLOW in contrast to their navigation performance with astandard map. Based on our empirical studies there is support for both the utility anddesirability of crossmodal ambient displays. Evaluation of the prototype has shownthat crossmodal ambient displays can support faster, more accurate and lesscognitively demanding navigation than can a traditional map. © 2007 University of Newcastle upon Tyne.Printed and published by the University of Newcastle upon Tyne,Computing Science, Claremont Tower, Claremont Road,Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, England.  Bibliographical details   CAO, H., OLIVIER, P., JACKSON, D., ARMSTRONG, A..Mobile Devices in Crossmodal Interfaces[By] H. Cao, P. Olivier, D. Jackson, A. Armstrong.Newcastle upon Tyne: University of Newcastle upon Tyne: Computing Science, 2007.(University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Computing Science, Technical Report Series, No. CS-TR-1004) Added entries   UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNEComputing Science. Technical Report Series. CS-TR-1004   Abstract   We describe a crossmodal ambient display framework with which we aim to bridge the gap between ambientdisplay technology and personal mobile HCI through the exploitation of aspects of crossmodal cognition. Weutilize this framework in the construction of CROSSFLOW, a crossmodal ambient display prototype for indoornavigation, and demonstrate a significant increase in the performance of users navigating with CROSSFLOW incontrast to their navigation performance with a standard map. Based on our empirical studies there is support forboth the utility and desirability of crossmodal ambient displays. Evaluation of the prototype has shown thatcrossmodal ambient displays can support faster, more accurate and less cognitively demanding navigation thancan a traditional map. About the author Han Cao is a PhD student at the School of Computing Science, Newcastle University.Patrick Olivier is a senior lecturer at the Informatics Research Institute, Newcastle University.Daniel Jackson is a research developer at the Informatics Research Institute, Newcastle University. Suggested keywords   PRIVACY, TRUST,PERVASIVE COMPUTING,PUBLIC DISPLAYS,CROSSMODAL DISPLAYS  Mobile Devices in Crossmodal Interfaces Han Cao, Patrick Olivier, Daniel Jackson, Andrew Armstrong Informatics Research Institute, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK Fax: +44 (0)191-246-4905  han.cao@ncl.ac.uk, p.l.olivier@ncl.ac.uk   Abstract. We describe a crossmodal ambient display framework with whichwe aim to bridge the gap between ambient display technology and personalmobile HCI through the exploitation of aspects of crossmodal cognition. Weutilize this framework in the construction of CROSSFLOW, a crossmodal am-bient display prototype for indoor navigation, and demonstrate a significant in-crease in the performance of users navigating with CROSSFLOW in contrast totheir navigation performance with a standard map. Based on our empiricalstudies there is support for both the utility and desirability of crossmodal ambi-ent displays. Evaluation of the prototype has shown that crossmodal ambientdisplays can support faster, more accurate and less cognitively demandingnavigation than can a traditional map. 1 Introduction One motivation for research into ambient displays is the recognition that humans canperform multiple tasks simultaneously, and contrary to explicit interface designswhich seek to support a single task, ambient and peripheral displays aim to supportengagement in multiple tasks with minimal performance impairment. This has par-ticular relevance when considered within the context of the ambient intelligence andpervasive computing research enterprises whereby ubiquitous information displayscontinuously display information of potential values to occupants of a space [1]. Thesupport of users undertaking navigation in a spatial environment, through the provi-sion of information displays that impose minimal demands on a user’s attention, is acanonical task in ubiquitous computing and is our chosen application domain.Ambient displays address a particular shortcoming of a conventional view of ubiquitous computing applications which emphasizes the use of personal computingdevices that incorporate their own visual displays (e.g. mobile phones and PDAs). Insuch a configuration, the very act of having to visually refer to one’s own display toreceive information undermines the goal of trying to immerse users in their spatialenvironment. Indeed a characteristic of many visual display based personal naviga-tion solutions is that their users wander around their environment attending to theirown devices and are to some degree disengaged from the very space they occupy.1  2 Ambient Displays An ambient display is embedded in the environment of its users and displays publicinformation, that is, information that is not inherently tailored to any specific user.Almost by definition, most of ambient displays convey general information (e.g.news, stock values, weather, traffic congestion and human activity) which can berevealed for both individual and group users through a small number of examplessupport personalized mappings [6,7]. We see bridging the personal-private divide asan unresolved issue in the design of ambient displays which is partially addressed bythe crossmodal modification we propose (see discussion in the sections 5 and 6).Ambient display research has involved the development a number of prototypesthat aim to utilize highly aesthetic, and essentially peripheral, representations. Forexample, InfoCanvas [3], Informative Art [4] and AROMA [5], each of which incor-porates abstract design elements, motivated by different styles of visual art, to repre-sent information. With a greater emphasis on the aesthetics of everyday design, theActive Wallpaper, Water Lamp, and Pinwheels [15] artifacts all attempt to map in-formation changes (e.g. weather, stock values) to system state changes in a “calm”and “subtle” manner, with a view to minimizing the attentional demands placed on auser engaged in some other task in an environment.In terms of modalities applied, the majority of peripheral displays focus on visualdisplays. Researchers of visual peripheral displays understand and utilize the Dual- Task Paradigm and aim to present information in a timely manner which appropri-ately matches the time-sharing strategies when users are performing two related taskssimultaneously. However, when the dual or multiple tasks become demanding, thevisual channel is easy overloaded and errors increase. Audio Aura [8], ambien-tROOM [9], and AROMA [5] have explored auditory and/or olfactory, multimodalambient displays to exploit more peripheral senses of users. Our design extends themodality dimension in which the coordinated modalities are exploited. 3 Cognition and crossmodal ambient displays Psychological research into attention, over many decades, has demonstrated that aninformation processing bottleneck implies one-at-a-time processing and an attendantlimitation in the information processing capability of humans in multiple task condi-tions. However, overwhelming evidence demonstrates that some information fromunattended sources ultimately reaches higher stages of processing [10], which pre-sents the possibilities for people to receive information efficiently in a manner thatthat does not require full attention.More recently, empirical research in cognitive neuroscience have given rise to thenotion of crossmodal attention, a term used to refer to capacities and effects involvedin the process of coordinating (or ‘matching’) the information received through mul-tiple perceptual modalities [11]. Recent studies reveal extensive crossmodal links inattention across the various modalities (i.e. audition, vision, touch and propriocep- 2
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