Proceeding of International Seminar Development Administration : Paradigm of Human Development

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Proceeding of International Seminar Development Administration : Paradigm of Human Development
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  Proceeding of International Seminar  Development Administration: Paradigm of Human Development Published by : College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia Volume 01, August 2009 ISBN. 978-983-44150-3-7 129  Proceeding of International Seminar  Development Administration: Paradigm of Human Development Published by : College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia Volume 01, August 2009 ISBN. 978-983-44150-3-7 128However, it generated an understanding from sidewalk vendors, which maintain the cleanenvironment, and having ability to absorb the labors from villages to join in informal sector. Closing Regional government with their authorities and responsibilities has legally law inconducting empowering process in informal sectors. The authorities tend to be conductedas well as the goal of city space management.Importance conflicts between government and sidewalk vendors tend to be occurredfrequently, with the reason of srcin culture factor and inconsistency of government in rulesimplementation.The process of city layout policy for sidewalk vendors is commonly conducted throughpersuasive approach. The process of bargaining is based on location determination, whichis perceived as strategic place, thus the community is needed to be involved as evaluator,and consequently government and sidewalk vendors can be responsible toward agreement.The implementation of city layout policy shows a doubt in accommodating sidewalkvendors rather than another importance. It has been conducted by considering theimportance of labor absorbing and social stability, than general city layout policy itself.There are violations of space using by sidewalk vendors corresponding to the weakness of regional government approach in implementing city layout policy for sidewalk vendor entirely. REFERENCES Bintarto, R, 1993, Interaksi  Desa - kota dan Permasalahannya , Ghalia, Jakarta.Branch, Melville C, 1995,  Perencanaan Kota Komprehensif  , Yogjakarta, Gajah MadaUniversity Press.Brainoch, Paul, 1973,  Urban Unemployment in Developing Countries, Geneva, International Labour Organization. Budihardjo, Eko, 1997,  Tata Ruang Perkotaan , Alumni, BandungDey, Thomas R, 1985,  Understanding Public P  olicy, Fourth Edition, Printice-Hall, Inc,Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Islamy, M. Irfan, 2003 , Prinsip-prinsip Perumusan Kebijaksanaan Negara,  Bina Aksara,Jakarta.Pamudji, S, 1985,  Pembinaan Perkotaan di Indonesia,  Bina Aksara, Jakarta.Sughandy, 2005 , Tata Ruang Kota dalam Pembangunan , Sinar Grafika, Jakarta.  Proceeding of International Seminar  Development Administration: Paradigm of Human Development Published by : College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia Volume 01, August 2009 ISBN. 978-983-44150-3-7 127 Actor’s Perception toward Policy It has been a longtime Krech (2005) said that the principle of perception is a cognitiveprocess experienced by every person in understanding the information about his or her environment through sensory perception. Despite the fact that Robins (2005) some yearsago tried to complete the opinion of Krech by statement that perception is meant as aprocess of individuals in organizing and guessing the sense impression thus it gives ameaning to their environment. Each individual perception tried to mean about socialenvironment reality. Therefore, perception is a unique guess toward situation, and not tonote the reality toward situation.In the basis of perception will come up because of individual internally factor towardunderstanding process of value, goal, belief, and suppose system about the result achieved.Its external factor is environment around individual existence. Several factors in detailinfluence perception of each individual can be seen in the following illustration: Several factors influence each individual perception One important entity should be attended is what has perceived of a policy maker isnot the same, but it can occur different from reality and objectively generatemisunderstanding and arguing continuously with ending on separation. According Gitosudarmo and Sudita (2005), the difference appears because of wrongperception as the result of:a. Stereotypingb. Halo Effect.c. Projection Several research result about Sidewalk Vendor  There are several research result about city space management, especially aboutsidewalk vendor, as Ramlan Surbakti (2005) described, in Surabaya sidewalk vendorsgenerate exchanging sources between authority and entrepreneur, where authorityfrequently exchanges with money or material form while importance conflict amongstauthorities, both in government and private sectors, has been influenced by severalsubjective pattern factors, those are personal interest from/ or certain private sector.Bagong Suyanto (2005) said, in Surabaya, there is city layout policy process, whichhave been conducted through harassment. Before an agreement occurred, there wereterrors such as demolishing threat from organization without form and difficultyaccommodated community importance.Paul kantor H.V. Savitch and Serena Vicari, H, (2005) described city layout policyprocess in West Europe and USA can cooperate between government and private sectorsand bargaining process to gain agreement is based on relevant benefit distribution and thecommunity is involved as evaluator, accordingly government and private sectors takeresponsibility toward agreement while regime as government representative is frequentlyrestriction on determined goal achievement.Soedjarwo (2005) as Head of Bangil, Pasuruan Area, illustrates regional governmentwith its authority and responsibility has legally law in conducting empowering process informal sector. He continued, regional government took decision in empowering agenda is just in concept; subsequently there are conflicts between authorities and sidewalk vendors.  Proceeding of International Seminar  Development Administration: Paradigm of Human Development Published by : College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia Volume 01, August 2009 ISBN. 978-983-44150-3-7 126One important result from World Assumptive model is Young calculated the realitythat “environment” is not simple outside but it is included “inside” of participants’ thought.Therefore, the problem is how to do in public policy formulation process so it will not bebiased, after seriously learned about this world assumptive. This World Assumptive modelis included test from level argumentation changes above surface from power and politics.Surface is a form, which is seen from politics, is front steps comparing value aspect, trust,assumption, and feeling from the deepest heart from a decision maker.In the meantime, another side of Kantor, Savitch and haddocks (1997) said that in policydetermining process is not only enough to do internally in government environment, but it isalso able to do through coalition between government and outer side (private company),especially on certain fields. Government is represented by agents are functioned to bargainof conditions between government and private sectors. For the time being, representativeof government is called by regime. That is the beginning of regime is used from PaulKantor’s idea.In a city concern, Regime Theory focuses on the reason of cooperation processbetween government and private through a formal coalition if government. Regime theorytried to offer several propositions about how economy and politic fields are the needs toform a regime itself. Regime theory has been limiting the importance different of arepresentative agent to attend utilization structure in the public policy. Accordingly, policychanging is a result of consequences in boundary of stable economic and politics. Theirony is, the representative in fact is a restriction to achieve the determined goal.The important point is tightly correlated with benefit distribution comes fromagreement between government and private sectors are included three entities:1. Local community is various in evaluating democracy situation of a regime which offers asupport to move forward of government program.2. They might be different in ability to persuade private investors because of competitionposition difference with other places to invest their capital.3. Finally, a city is interested to evaluate relation boundary between governments, somepresent aid bigger than others in determining rules of capital investment process do.Whilst government and private sectors conduct competition to determine cooperationagreement, and consider the benefit distribution offers based on legally rules of the game,the democratize situation in governmental boundary ( local, regional, and national) from cityperspective will influence characteristic of a regime as an actor who tried to use agreementsources and opportunities they acquire. According to views of bargaining agreement, a good democracy system will increasecommunity agreement guarantee of community on cooperation between government andprivate sectors, and it is expected to get support from community in determining theagreement in order to evade the violation by private or government. However, democracysituation will not affect to political regime.If the pressure of democracy motivates ambitious authority to form open coalition andsocial agenda, hence it can decrease sources of cooperation from private sectors. In order to support an understanding of actor’s characteristic who is involved in decision making asUnanimity as well as Rational Choice; it seems to know further about the meaning of severalactors involved.  Proceeding of International Seminar  Development Administration: Paradigm of Human Development Published by : College of Arts and Sciences Universiti Utara Malaysia Volume 01, August 2009 ISBN. 978-983-44150-3-7 125So far, policies of city layout policy for sidewalk vendor are not able to answer theproblems and it should be attended better to complete the needs of both sides. A Moment Argue of World Assumptive In line with policy of city layout policy for sidewalk vendor, there is structure of worldassumptive consists of observation, and influence based on information, values, and normsaspects. Beside of those two aspects, there is relationship with environment in decisionmaking of policy, which is called by Young (2005) as Cathexis, means feeling developmentof loving power. This value orientation is a result of synthesis from Cognitive and Cathexis.Therefore, the most special part is social relationship system.In proportion to the structure based on World Assumptive, which is able to determinethe goal and direction, it is capable to call decision makers in considering the decision. Theway, which is called for decision makers, is to make planning for directing rather thaninstruction applying. Besides, it is an interaction result between actors with its environment.Human interaction with its world environment will make a social reality idea as a concretedeepest problem, in order to keep the objectivity of individual to generate humanity policy.Construction from World Assumptive for actors of policy was occurred in life system comesfrom interaction. The stress between illustration and experience on individual of policymakers is a call to conduct and goal achievement.World Assumptive model from Young (2005) has several similarities with the opinionof Sabatier (2005), that the actors were known will be faced with justice and discrimination,opinion modification on their world assumptive limitation, but the core depth in trust will berather changed. The changes are only taken place on actors’ world, while the environmentprovides a space between specific reality and specific assumption. However, if theenvironment is bothered, the actors seem to respond with conduct than agree with thechanges.Elzioni (2005) with his concept of Community Assumption, tried to join World Assumptive from Young and the approach, which is used by Sabatier. Afterward Elzioni said that Community Assumptive could be defined as a chainedassumption, which is used by members of a social unit as a context chained of an individualto view the world and themselves.Community Assumptive is regularly held by consciousness about hypothesisfoundation, which generally has many actors, is supposed that real world is the way tointernationalize and make involvement with institution for them by the way to illustrate them.That is the reason the most important us about Public Reality Test and Elzioni Policy Analysis struggle (Elzioni, 1968 in Wayme Person, 1997:379).Meanwhile, Ernst Haas (2005) illustrated a community by using the idea of EpistemicCommunity (consist of professionals which are recruited from several disciplines) has beendividing commitment to be a statement and a set of political value. They are joined by atrust on factual model and public policy, where punishment for human welfare is his bet(Haas, 1990 in Wayne Person, 1997:380).World Assumptive from Young is a complicated model from the process of policymaking and if it is entered by elements from Greenstein (2005) approach toward personalityand politics, it will be finished until framework which is very comprehensive to testpsychology dimension from decision making in policy determining process.
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