Towards an Understanding of Post-Tridentine Portuguese Polyphony, with Special Reference to the Motets of Manuel Cardoso (with an Analysis of Non mortui and Sitivit anima mea)


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Towards an Understanding of Post-Tridentine Portuguese Polyphony, with Special Reference to the Motets of Manuel Cardoso (with an Analysis of Non mortui and Sitivit anima mea)
  Towards an Understanding of Post-Tridentine Portuguese Polyphony, with Special Reference to the Motets of Manuel Cardoso (with an Analysis of  Non mortui  and Sitivit anima mea ) *    João Pedro d'Alvarenga I In an important, argumentative essay of 1990, Manuel Carlos de Brito recognised that a study of the motets by Frei Manuel Cardoso might constitute the key to the question of Mannerism in Portuguese music, though he expressed a certain scepticism as to the practical viability of the actual concept of Mannerism in the periodization of the history of music in Portugal. 1  The notion of a mannerist style was introduced into Portuguese music historiography by Santiago Kastner in relation to the tentos  of Carreira and Rodrigues Coelho, and was subsequently developed on a broad scale with regard to the secular repertoire contained in the sixteenth-century Cancioneiros  to include additionally the sacred polyphony of the Counter-Reformation, conceptualised and thence extrapolated and applied to historical periodization by Rui Viera Nery, in successive, seminal texts since 1977, 2  sparking off the * Portuguese srcinal first published in Estudos de musicologia , Lisbon, Colibri, Centro de História da Arte da Universidade de Évora, 2002, pp. 105-52. English translation by David Cranmer published (with numerous misprints) in Escola de música da Sé de Évora , Évora, Casa do Sul, 2004, pp. 143-202. Revised by the author in May 2005. 1  Manuel Carlos de B RITO , "Renascença, Maneirismo, Barroco: o problema da periodização histórica na música portuguesa dos séculos XVI e XVII" in De musica hispana et aliis: miscelánea en honor al Prof. Dr. José López-Calo, S. J. , Santiago de Compostela, Universidade, 1990, vol. 1., pp. 552-53. 2  Rui Vieira N ERY , "La musique portuguaise dans le contexte iberique: de la Renaissance au Baroque" [written in 1977] Informação Musical , 9, 1982, pp. 27-36; id., "Italian models and problems of periodization in Portuguese Baroque music" in Routes du Baroque: la contribution du    2most stimulating and, as it happens, the only genuine, theoretical relevant controversy to convulse Portuguese musicology in recent decades. 3  Leaving aside for the moment this fundamental question, in this essay I take up Brito's suggestion of revisiting Manuel Cardoso's motets and examine two in particular, Non mortui  and Sitivit anima mea , systematically forgotten in the appraisals of the composer's works, but particularly "filled with dissonances and strange chromaticisms", 4  more that the motets of the 1648 collection, thus characterised by Brito with reference to possible mannerist traits. 5   II At present thirty motets by Manuel Cardoso are known (see appendix). Non mortui  and Sitivit anima mea , both for 6 voices, were published in the composer's first book of Masses ―  Missae quaternis quinis, et sex vocibus, liber primus  ― printed by Pedro Craesbeeck in 1625; twenty-two others, for four (10), five (11) and six voices (1), are included in the Livro de varios motetes, officio da semana santa, e outras cousas,  ready for publication in January 1645, the date of the first licences, and set up at the same premises (now under the name of Lourenço de Baroque à la pensée et à l’Art européens , Lisbon, Secretaria de Estado da Cultura, 1990, pp. 217-23; id., "O Maneirismo em Portugal: a música" in XV Jornadas Gulbenkian de Música Antiga: o  Maneirismo ,   Lisbon, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1994, pp. 9-10; R. V. N ERY  & Paulo Ferreira de C ASTRO , História da música , Sínteses da Cultura Portuguesa, Lisbon, Europália '91, IN-CM, 1991, pp. 46 ff. 3  A number of texts that approach this theme from different perspectives: Manuel Carlos de B RITO , "Renascença, Maneirismo, Barroco…", pp. 539-54; Manuel Pedro F ERREIRA , "Da música na História de Portugal" Revista Portuguesa de Musicologia , 4-5, 1994-95, pp. 167-216 (especially pp. 183-95); Ivan M OODY , "Portuguese 'Mannerism': a case for an aesthetic inquisition" Early  Music , XXIII, 3, 1995, pp. 450-58. 4  M. C. de B RITO , "Renascença, Maneirismo, Barroco…", p. 552. 5  An initial overall attempt to analyse the motets of the 1648 collection is to be found in Vanda de Sá Martins da S ILVA , O motete na Escola de Évora: Manuel Cardoso, Estêvão Lopes Morago e Estêvão de Brito , Master's dissertation in Musicology, 2 vols., Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1995.    3Anvers) by the printer João Rodrigues in 1648; 6  six, for four voices, remain unpublished, in a codex dated 1646, srcinally from the Collegiate Church of São Pedro, Óbidos, and deposited in the Library of the National Museum of Archaeology. 7  According to the respective licences, Manuel Cardoso had completed the  Missae… liber primus  in July 1624. From the obscure prose of the dedication to the future King João IV, at that time Duke of Barcelos, we gain the impression that the works contained in the volume, while not exactly fulfilling a commission but rather some kind of pledge, were in some way approved of by the Duke, and had not been composed within a short space of time nor close to the date of printing. 8   6  On the history of Craesbeeck's important printer's shop, see João José Alves D IAS , Craesbeeck: uma dinastia de impressores em Portugal , Lisbon, Associação Portuguesa de Livreiros Alfarrabistas, 1996, pp. ix-xx.   7  See José Maria Pedrosa C ARDOSO , "Inéditos de Fr. Manuel Cardoso" Revista Portuguesa de  Musicologia , 3, 1993, pp. 43-52. The works of Manuel Cardoso, other than the last six motets, are available in modern editions. To the titles mentioned by J. A. A LEGRIA  in Frei Manuel Cardoso, compositor português (1566 - 1650) , Biblioteca Breve 75, Lisbon, Instituto de Cultura e Língua Portuguesa, 1983, pp. 99-100, should be added the following: Ivan M OODY , ed., Frei Manuel Cardoso: Missa pro defunctis sex vocum , London, Mapa Mundi, 1991; id., Frei Manuel Cardoso: Tulerunt lapides, Nos autem gloriari, Mulier quae erat in civitate peccatrix, Non mortui qui sunt in inferno, & sitivit anima mea, for five & six voices, London, Mapa Mundi, 1993; id.,  Masterworks from Lisbon , Faber Motet Series, London, Faber Music, 1996. Other more recent studies that focus on particular aspects of the composer's output should also be mentioned: José Maria Pedrosa C ARDOSO , "A Missa Filipina de Fr. Manuel Cardoso (1566-1650)" Revista Portuguesa de  Musicologia , 1, 1991, pp. 193-203; Filipe Mesquita de O LIVEIRA ,  As seis missas 'Ab initio et ante saecula creata sum' do Liber tertius missarum de Frei Manuel Cardoso: análise , Master's dissertation in Musicology, 2 vols., Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1995; Rui Miguel Cabral L OPES ,  A Missa  pro Defunctis na Escola de Manuel Mendes: ensaio de análise comparada , Master's dissertation in Musicology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1996; Owen R EES , "Some observations on parody Masses by Magalhães, Cardoso and Garro" Revista Portuguesa de Musicologia , 7-8, 1997-98, pp. 7-24. 8  See Fr. Manuel C ARDOSO ,  Missae… liber primus , Ulissipone, apud Petrum Craesbeeck, 1625, dedication: "Et quidemaequum erat [...] aborsum non facerent, sed maturum tempus nacta in opus prodirent" [And it was only right and proper ... that they should not come out prematurely, but only as perfected works in the fullness of time]. The dedication and licences are reproduced in José Augusto A LEGRIA , ed., Frei Manuel Cardoso (1566 - 1650): Liber primus missarum , vol. 1, Portugaliae Musica V, Lisbon, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1962. Nor should we exclude the hypothesis that Cardoso wote the  Missae… liber primus , at least in part, during a possible stay at Vila Viçosa or Évora, from perhaps around 1618, if we accept the    4Of the seven Masses included in this book, five are parody masses based on Palestrina's motets of the same name: Tradent enim vos , for 5 voices, from the  Motettorum… liber tertius  (Venice, 1575); Puer qui natus est  and Hic est discipulus ille , both for 5 voices, from the Liber primus… motettorum  (Rome, 1569); Tui sunt coeli , for 4 voices, from the Offertoria totius anni… pars prima  (Rome, 1593); and Veni sponsa Christi , for 4 voices, from the  Motecta festorum totius anni… liber  primus  (Venice, 1563). 9   III This reference to Palestrinian models leads me to digress, however briefly, on the possible frame of reference of stylistic antecedents which come together in Cardoso's output and, by extension, that of his contemporaries of the so-called 'School of Évora'. We should have no illusions with regard to the vast, protective shadow which the works of Palestrina cast over the 17th century (and, in a more idealised form, over the 18th and 19th), particularly in the traditions more deeply rooted in Roman Catholicism, where the stile antico  remained the preferred choice for the musical genres of day-to-day liturgy, 10  a theory that he was one of the teachers of the young Duke of Barcelos (see Mário de Sampaio R IBEIRO , Frei Manuel Cardoso; contribuição para o estudo da sua vida e da sua obra , Achegas para a História da Música em Portugal VI, Lisbon, 1961, p. 90). Indeed, a certain similarity in the compositional process between the two, with a preference for combining a motif with its inversion (see O. R EES , "Some observations…", pp. 14-20) compels us to leave open this possibility. 9  The texts of three of these Palestrina motets and consequently the respective Cardoso Masses evoke the name of João, Duke of Barcelos: Puer qui natus est  is the  Magnificat  antiphon for 2nd Vespers of the feast of the Birth of St. John the Baptist (24 June), Hic est discipulus ille  the Terce antiphon for the feast of St. John Apostle and Evangelist (27 December) and Tradent enim vos  the  Magnificat  antiphon for Vespers of the Common of Apostles and Evangelists. In the political context of the Peninsula, especially from 1621, under Olivares, valet to Philip IV, allusions of this kind may be read as intending Messianic symbolism (see note 21 below). 10  Note, in any case, how in Portugal the repertoire of the so-called 'Roman School' ― Palestrina and Victoria, in particular ― is strongly represented in the 17th-century codices srcinating from Vila Viçosa, or intended for the Ducal Chapel, and is found very little in earlier manuscripts and in codices of other provenance.    5shadow which Cardoso did not escape (as we must suppose from the motets for 4 voices in the 1648 collection). Nevertheless, it seems to me that the choice of models for the Masses of the Liber primus  of 1625 was determined for reasons of decorum  ― Palestrina being a recognised paradigm for what was proper in the relationship between polyphony and the post-Tridentine liturgy, and clearly a composer that found favour with the Duke of Barcelos 11  ― rather than because of any intrinsic stylistic affinity between Cardoso and Palestrina. Cardoso seems to me rather akin to the successive generations of Flemings in Spain: Philippe Rogier (and through him, Gombert), Gery de Ghersem and Matthieu Rosmarin. 12  Within a frame of reference of fundamentally Iberian antecedents, transmitted above all through Francisco Guerrero, the model for Duarte Lobo and Magalhães for a significant number of Masses, 13  another important influence that needs to be traced is that of the Spaniard Francisco Garro, chapelmaster of the Royal Chapel in Lisbon between 1592 and 1623 (at least nominally, since in 1599 Filipe de Magalhães was in fact directing it). 14  The composers trained at the Évora cloister in the last quarter of the 16th century and active between the 1590s and the middle of the 17th century ― of which Lobo, Cardoso and Magalhães are the principal representatives ― in 11  In 1649, in the Defensa de la musica moderna, contra la errada opinion del Obispo Cyrilo Franco , [Lisbon, Paulo Craesbeeck, 1650?], pp. 42-44, King João IV reproduces the myth of the  Missa Papae Marcelli , as it appears in Agazzari ( Del sonare sopra il basso , 1607) and in Banchieri ( Conclusioni nel suono dell'organo , 1609), making Palestrina, Alfonso Ferrabosco and Philippe Rogier heroes of the stile antico . 12  This line of thinking is raised by M. C. de B RITO , "Renascença, Maneirismo, Barroco…", p. 551.   13  Of the ten parody Masses by Lobo (the exact nature of the Cantate Domino  and Brevis oratio  masses has not yet in my view been sufficiently clarified), four take Guerrero motets as models and four are derived from Palestrina motets. The models for the Masses  Hic est praecursor and Vox clamantis  have not yet been identified; see Armindo B ORGES , Duarte Lobo (156? - 1646): Studien zum Leben und Schaffen des portugiesischen Komponisten , Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung 132, Regensburg, Gustav Bosse, 1986, pp. 137-40 and 157-60. The Guerrero motet Veni Domine is the model for the Mass of that name by Magalhães; see O. R EES , "Some observations…", pp. 7-14. 14  The importance of Garro's works was suggested to me by a comment to this effect by Owen R EES  (see "Newly identified holograph manuscripts from late-Renaissance Portugal" Early  Music , XXII, 2, pp. 272 and 274).
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